There are several ways to implement email function in android, with their own pros and cons. I will try to summarize everything here, and you can find a demo application at the end.
1) Use installed mail apps
Create an intent with ACTION_SEND and mailto scheme:
MimeType can be set to message/rfc822 instead of text/plain, to limit applications displayed in the chooser dialog.
message/rfc822 stands for
Email; EML files, MIME files, MHT files, MHTML files; Defined in RFC 2045 and RFC 2046
There is also an enhanced version, from which you can determine what will be displayed in the chooser dialog.
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2) Use the java mail api
(ported to android by Jon Simon).
Firstly, you will need to download three jar files from https://code.google.com/p/javamail-android/ .
Then, simply follow the code provided in the demo application, or you can refer to http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java/java_sending_email.htm for a comprehensive guide.
3) Use specifically built backend Api
Most applications have a backend service, it is easy to add an api that collects info from handsets and send mail on the server side.
Demo application: (last update on Aug, 4, 2013)
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2197741/how-to-send-email-from-my-android-application http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6827407/how-to-customize-share-intent-in-android http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type http://www.jondev.net/articles/Sending_Emails_without_User_Intervention_(no_Intents)_in_Android http://developer.android.com/guide/components/intents-filters.html